Read some interesting industry articles.

Calcium Delivery, Other Matters in Transition Cow Management

Holly Drankhan, Source: Progressive Dairyman

Nutrition is always of paramount importance to dairy producers. But during the transition period, one particular nutrient becomes a central focus: calcium.

With calcium supplements available in the form of boluses, oral drenches, IV bottles, gels and pastes, it can be difficult for producers to choose which is best for their transition cows. Balancing cost, ease of use and results, a number of industry representatives weighed in on which options they prefer.

Boluses are the preferred calcium delivery method for Lee Jensen of Five Star Dairy in Elk Mound, Wisconsin. Although he started using the product skeptically, he found boluses reduced the incidence of milk fever and could be easily administered using a stall with a head catch for restraint. He also says the pills are longer-lasting than IV calcium, which he still uses for cows with ketosis.

Jensen did not always use boluses on his 1,100-cow dairy. Previously, every cow received a calcium drench, an administration technique he found expensive and time-consuming. Safety also became a concern when one cow was killed from inhaling the liquid.

“I think the boluses are way safer than the drenches, myself,” Jensen says.

Steve Weinzirl of Val-O-Mo Farms Inc. in Elmwood, Wisconsin, agrees. Although he uses a propylene glycol drench as a source of blood glucose for cows with ketosis, he does not like this method because cows tend to cough after administration.

Weinzirl uses boluses to provide calcium to his 500 Holsteins during the transition period. He provides one bolus at calving to 3-year-olds and an additional bolus 12 hours later to cows 4 years old and older.

Since using the boluses, Weinzirl says he rarely needs to administer calcium intravenously, which was a routine practice.

Some boluses can provide additional nutrients, making them advantageous in helping a cow during the transition period, says Michelle Lancaster of Spirited Rose Homestead Dairy Farm. Michelle and her husband, Jay, offer advice to family dairies on their website.

On their former 100-cow dairy in Ferndale, Washington, the Lancasters administered a CMPK bolus up to one week before calving to those cows that had previous incidences of milk fever. In addition to calcium, these boluses deliver the minerals magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as some extra vitamins to help correct possible nutritional imbalances.

For rapid calcium delivery, Dr. Jack Register – a practicing veterinarian for 40 years and founder of Dr. Register and Associates – recommends his calcium drench formula. Whereas boluses and pastes are slowly absorbed in the rumen, liquid calcium chloride directly enters the omasum and abomasum by stimulating closure of the esophageal groove, he says. This raises blood calcium levels in 15 minutes.

“The quick absorption will also bring the vitamins and herbal antibiotic into the cow when needed,” Register says.

Unlike most boluses, the drench is effective in cows suffering from milk fever, Register says. It can also be given every four to six hours without fear of rumen acidosis.

Register recommends one 300-cc dose a day for three days following calving. For cows with a history of milk fever, an additional dose can also be administered before calving.

Mike Johnson of Jerland Farms in Barron, Wisconsin, provides a 300-cc dose of a calcium drench to his cows immediately after calving and again eight to 10 hours later. After a cow’s third calf, Johnson also administers IV calcium for extra protection against milk fever.

To ensure safe delivery, it is important for a producer to apply the gun and release the drench slowly so the cow can swallow the liquid naturally, says Register. A non-burning formula also prevents resistance from the cow. By placing the gun between the cheek and teeth, Register says accidental inhalation and possible aspiration pneumonia can be minimized.

Register also developed a calcium gel with the same formula and 15-minute response but a sweeter taste that makes administration easier. Although more expensive than the drench, Register says the gel is still cheaper than most boluses.

Aside from supplying supplemental calcium, dairy producers have found a number of other practices beneficial in helping cows and heifers through the transition period.

To help reduce stress in the summer and winter, Jensen installed a tunnel ventilation system in his 550-foot-long freestall barn for dry and fresh cows. On hot days when the humidity is below 50 percent, high-pressure fog can also help cool the facility.

Diet is another key factor. While Jensen previously fed the same diet to all of his dry cows, he now gives a separate recipe to far-off dry cows and pre-fresh dry cows. He also maintains a minimum bunk space of 24 inches.

On their website, the Lancasters recommend limiting the intake of calcium-rich alfalfa during the dry period to prevent milk fever. Preventing constipation is also crucial to ensure proper nutrient utilization, says Michelle.

Despite these efforts, producers still face a variety of challenges during the transition period.

Although he attempted to oversize his barn by 30 percent, Jensen experiences some overcrowding during occasional calving surges. If any group is populated more heavily during these instances, it will be those dry cows furthest from parturition, he says.

For Johnson, the biggest problem this year is ketosis after calving, especially for heifers. To prevent this condition, the farm is attempting to feed more hay to keep heifers thin, starting as yearlings before they are bred.

Whether space, diet or calcium supplementation, producers consider a multitude of factors when forming management strategies for their transition cows. While none follow the exact same protocol, each has developed an ever-adapting strategy that is effective on their farms and for their lives. PD

Holly Drankhan is a freelance writer and an incoming student at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Progressive Dairyman Editor Jenna Hurty-Person

Published on 09 August 2016

Nicomekl Farms finds new opportunities in organic dairy farming

If you’re ever driving just outside of Surrey, British Columbia, and you spy a field of Holstein cows grazing next to the road, you just might be at Nicomekl Farms Ltd., which is known to the locals as the “farm that has the cows outside all of the time,” says farm owner David Janssens.

Janssens’ parents started the dairy in 1957 and named it after the Nicomekl River, which runs straight through the property. Janssens returned to the dairy in 1988. From 1990 to 2000, his parents worked on transitioning the dairy to him and his wife, Sandy. During this time, they worked to buy out Janssens’ four siblings’ share of the dairy.

“What worked in our case was, first and foremost, my parents were very adamant that the farm would continue, that it wouldn’t have to be torn apart or diminished in scale and opportunities because of paying out the siblings, so it was a monetary payout to the other siblings,” Janssens says. “I was fortunate I guess in hindsight that the four siblings developed careers and opportunities off of the farm. From 1990 to 2000, the farm was more or less static, and we concentrated on paying out the siblings. I think, for my parents in particular, having a harmonious family after the succession with the successful farm still operating in the family, I think that was – there were turbulences and problems -– but I think looking back on it, it worked quite well.”

In the mid-2000s, the Janssenses discussed and decided to convert their conventional operation into an organic operation, and in 2008 they became certified organic. Although the conversion took three years for the land and one year for the cattle, switching gave them more opportunities and allowed the dairy to grow. Currently, they are one of only 24 organic dairies in British Colombia, and at 500 milk cows, they are the largest single-source organic dairy in the province.

The farm consists of 750 acres, which they use for crops and pasture. The milking herd is divided into three different groups. The cows usually go out on pasture in April or whenever it is dry enough to turn the cows out. Per organic regulations, each cow has at least one-third acre of pasture and gets at least 30 percent of its dry matter intake from pasture. The rest of the cow’s diet is from a TMR ration that they feed when the cows are in the barn for milking. The TMR is heavy in grain and silage to balance out the diet.

Cows are milked twice a day in a double-16 parlour. The parlour was originally a double-12, which they built in 1992, but Janssens didn’t like how his employees were constantly pushing cattle into the parlour and out. Although the parlour is larger now, Janssens still only has one employee milking because he likes how the cows move through the parlour better.

“We really like [the larger parlour] for the simple reason that it stopped the employees from chasing cows,” Janssens says. “I found that with the double-12 they were constantly chasing cows in, chasing cows out. With a double-16 they’re overwhelmed by the number of cows, so they simply focus on milking. I usually tell people it’s more like a rotary parlour where you just concentrate on milking and let [the cows] come in by themselves, and I think it’s really improved cow flow.”

Since they are no longer allowed to use hormones to control estrus, Janssens says reproduction has been a challenge for them. Currently they’re sitting at only a 15 percent pregnancy rate, and the cows often calve in waves, making it challenging for the dairy to produce a steady milk supply.

To help with this, the dairy installed an inline milk testing system to monitor progesterone levels about two years ago. The system is still a work in progress since they were one of the first and the largest dairy to have one in Canada. Janssens says he expects to see improvements in the next year or so as they learn more about it and how to use it most effectively in their herd.

Janssens says one of the most important tools for keeping their dairy running smoothly has been their employee handbook. By putting one together and giving it to any of their employees and any potential employees, he clearly outlines what he expects from each of them. This is a crucial component to keeping everyone on the same page and making sure protocols are followed correctly.

“Employee handbooks are a must. It helps a lot when you’re hiring someone to be able to just say, ‘Here, this is what we’re all about. It gives you the history, rules and expectations, and everything,’” Janssens says. “By and large, when I give them that handbook, they see what’s there and they’ll come to us.”

Overall, Janssens says he’s glad they decided to go organic as it’s opened up opportunities and allowed the farm to grow to meet demand and supply a new market. He also encourages other dairymen and women to consider organic dairy farming.

“There’s a lot of opportunity in milk production on the organic side, but just as importantly on the field crop side,” Janssens says. “Tremendous premiums are being paid by the consumer for organic products and we’d like to see more.”  PD

HCD: Haplotype Associated with Cholesterol Deficiency

Below is a summary of a CDN Extension Article “Discovering Genetic Anomalies from Genotyping” by Brian VanDoormaal & Lynsay Beavers. For the full article, please visit

In addition to genomic evaluations and integrity of pedigrees, accumulating thousands of genotypes for a given breed results in the discovery of new genetic anomalies. Scientists in Germany recently discovered a new “Haplotype associated with Cholesterol Deficiency” (i.e.: HCD) in Holsteins, which traces back to Maughlin Storm as the oldest genotyped sire of origin. For calves that inherited the undesirable gene from both parents, it was found that they had an increased incidence of chronic/prolonged diarrhea that was untreatable, as well as other illnesses. Examination of blood samples from affected calves showed a cholesterol deficiency that prevented the normal deposition of fat in body tissues. Over the course of months after birth, the affected calves lost all body reserves and it appears that all eventually died. Without the presence of an exact gene test to identify carriers, the current haplotype analysis can result in some animals being falsely labelled as a carrier if they have both Storm and Willowholme Mark Anthony in their pedigree.

The methodology used by CDN to calculate the HCD Carrier Probability values (varying from 99% for “Carrier” to 1% for “Free”), reduces this problem by combining the haplotype test with pedigree analysis. Now that this undesirable anomaly is known, an industry effort can easily be made to reduce the frequency that carrier animals are mated together, thereby lowering the frequency that homozygous calves are born and subsequently die within months. The discovery of this genetic condition also demonstrates the value and importance of producers reporting to DHI the date and reason for every animal leaving the herd, including young calves.

Scientists Produce the World’s First Wood Bison Using In Vitro Fertilization

Some exciting research has been taking place at the University of  Saskatchewan in the WestGen Reproduction Suite . Researchers have been collaborating to produce these amazing results. Read the articles linked below:

Scientists in Saskatchewan may have figured out how save the wood bison: through in vitro fertilization – National Post (includes interview with Gregg Adams, a reproductive specialist with the Western College of Veterinary Medicine)

University of Saskatchewan researchers produce world’s first wood bison using in vitro fertilization – CBC News (includes interview with Gregg Adams, a reproductive specialist with the Western College of Veterinary Medicine)

Scientists produce world’s first wood bison using in vitro fertilization – Canada News (Dr. Gregg Adams, a professor and reproductive specialist at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine)

World’s 1st IVF and frozen embryo wood bison calves made in Saskatchewan – Global News (includes interview with Dr. Gregg Adams, a U of S veterinary scientist)

Bison get reproductive boost from science – Saskatoon Star Phoenix (Gregg Adams, a professor of veterinary medicine at the WCVM is interviewed)

World’s 1st IVF and frozen embryo wood bison calves made in Saskatchewan – Canada Now (Interview with Dr. Gregg Adams, U of S veterinary scientist at the WCVM)

U of S researchers make strides in repopulating wood bison herd – MBC Radio  (Interview with Dr. Gregg Adams, U of S veterinary scientist at the WCVM)